Kidney Stones Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Kidney stones are hard mineral and salt deposits made inside your kidneys. Kidney stones usually begin in your kidney but can form anywhere in your urinary tract. Your urinary tract consists of: –


  1. Kidney
  2. Ureters
  3. Urethras
  4. bladder

Passing kidney stones can be very painful. Kidney stones generally do not cause permanent damage. Often pain medication and drinking lots of water help to pass the kidney stone.

Types of kidney stones

Calcium stones are the most common type of kidney stones. These stones are generally made of calcium and oxicate or calcium and phosphate.
Uric stones are more common in men. They develop when your urine is acidic.
Struvite stones can be caused due to an infection causing ammonia levels to increase in your urine.
Cystine stones are made of cystine a naturally occurring chemical occurring in our bodies. These stones occur very rarely and are caused due to a genetic disorder.

Symptoms

If your kidney stone is small, it will pass easily through your urinary tract without any discomfort or pain. If you have larger kidney stones you may experience these symptoms: –


  • Pain during urination
  • Blood in your urine
  • Acute pain in the lower back or stomach
  • Nausea and vomiting.

You should book a doctor in your place if you have these symptoms.

Causes

The exact cause of kidney stones is not known. Men are more likely to get kidney stones. Kidney stones form when your urine contains crystal-forming substances such as calcium, oxalate, and uric acid. You are at higher risk of getting kidney stones if:-


  • Low urine volume can be caused due to dehydration. Dehydration can be caused due to physical work, hot and humid weather conditions, and not drinking enough water. Concentrated urine prevents salts from dissolving in the fluid.
  • Diet can increase the risk of kidney stones. Calcium stones are caused due to high calcium levels in the urine. Higher calcium levels in urine can be because of the way our bodies handle calcium. A high protein diet and too much salt increase the chances of kidney stones.
  • Obesity increases the risk of kidney stones.
  • Medical conditions such as abnormal growth in your thyroid gland, gout, and renal tubular acidosis can increase the chances of kidney stones.
  • Bowel condition like diarrhea, Crohn’s disease, or gastric bypass surgeries increases the risk of kidney stones.
  • Some medication and calcium and Vitamin C supplements increase the risk of kidney stones.

Diagnosis

The best urologist in Kanpur suspects you have a kidney stone they may order the following tests:-


  • Blood tests at home to check the level of uric acid and calcium in the blood.
  • Urinalysis to examine the number of crystals, bacteria, blood, and white cells in your urine.
  • Imaging tests such as X-rays, USG or CT scan.
  • Analyzing the stone passed.

Treatment

The treatment recommended by the best urologist in Kanpur depends on the size, location, and type of kidney stone. Smaller stones do not require any invasive treatment. Drinking plenty of water and pain- killers help to flush the stone from your body.

Larger stones that cannot pass on their own may be treated by


Kidney Stones Causes, Symptoms and Treatment
  1. Sound waves or extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is used to break up the stone depending on its location and help it pass during urination.
  2. Ureteroscopy is used to remove stones from your kidney or urethrae. The instrument is a tube equipped with a camera, once the stone is located the stone is either grabbed or broken into smaller pieces with the help of special tools.
  3. A surgery called Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is used to remove a large stone from the kidney using a special instrument. It is used when the stone is too large to pass on its own.

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